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Glossary of Resources (A-E)


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Active Public
A public which has active or knowledgeable stake in an event, organisation or issue.

Advertising Mediums
May include brochures, posters, radio and/or television, newspaper, community meetings, course handbooks, performing and/or visual arts.

Ambush Marketing
The misrepresentation of an organisation as being associated with an event or product.

Seems a bit odd to look at this one, but in terms of Culture, Art is clearly a subset. It is an exclusion of cultural elements such as language, cuisine, fashion, sport and so on. But it can also be used as a value term.

Simon Roodhouse talked about dramatic works (TV shows) which are deliberately excluded from the arts by the British Government. When is a piece of music art and when is it something else…such as entertainment?

Who decides what art is and isn't? If culture is too amorphous to really be a commodity, is art a commodity? Or is this limited only to art objects and artistic products? Can artistic processes be a commodity?

Artistic Merit/Excellence
Before tackling this one, it is worth asking, does anyone use a notion of excellence outside of conversations with funding bodies? Is it really a relevant concept and are we are stuck with because it appears in the Australia Council act of 1972. Can we get Gough to save us all a lot of heartbreak and just tell us what the hell they meant by it?

But seriously, has anyone read Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance? There are a lot of parallels here. The author spends a long motorcycle holiday and the length of the book philosophizing about the concept of quality, without ever really getting his head around the fact that Quality is NOT an absolute concept. It is inherently a statement of value, based upon relative comparison of different things in order to establish some kind of (often unspoken) hierarchy which deems certain things as better.

Excellence is much the same. And the author's inability to have a Quality relationship with his son during all this is rather like the way policy and funding focuses on excellence can really miss the mark in their dealings with the field.

What do you think of the idea of excellence as a relative concept? An excellent piece of individual artist-as-hero abstract art and an excellent piece of group devised graffiti art have entirely different aesthetics and values. Is it valid to compare those aesthetics and values in a scale of excellence?

This term tends to be used instead of artist for two reasons.

a) Some professional CCD workers will be involved in project design, management and evaluation rather than actual art making skills

b) To acknowledge the additional skills CCD artists employ

As well as the artform expertise required to ensure excellent artistic outcomes, CCD artworkers must apply project management and planning skills, negotiation, communication and collaborative skills. they need the ability to lead, challenge, motivate and facilitate communities in their activities without dominating or directing them. CCD artworkers are also aware of social justice issues, are sensitive and responsive to the needs of many different communities with which they work.

Describes a method of learning by doing. Community artists experiment with different approaches to gathering relevant material for a project, each of which produces new learning; different types of interactions; different results, Based on these experiments, the project's focus and core methods are determined.

A group of people who are receptive to a medium or message.


Borderless Media Environment
The trend within the media to reach beyond state and national boundaries due to technological development.

Brand Equity
The identification of a brand within the identity of its parent organisation.


Call for (or 'Invitation for') Expression of Interest
Technical Version: an advertisement or letter requesting responses from suitably qualified firms or individuals, usually by a set date and usually in response to an information package containing the Terms of Reference. The term is usually used in regards to the supply of professional services.

Plain English Version: an advertisement or letter asking other people and firms for a description of what they will do and the price for doing it.

Change Directive
Is an internally driven push towards change: verbs like naming, claiming, transforming, uniting and extending are change directives, because they anticipate change occurring in a specific way. Change directions can start as unarticulated feeling or need or sense of potential.

Chief of Staff
A senior editorial member of a newspaper team who allocates news and monitors staff development.

Clippings Service
A business that monitors media coverage for a client, compiling regular collections of relevant stories.

Closed System
An organisational approach that does not accept input from the external environment.

Coalition Building
The bringing together of individuals and groups in support of an issue.

Describes a unit of social organization based on some distinguishing characteristics or affinity: proximity ('the Liverpool community'), belief ('the Muslim community'), ethnicity ('the Aboriginal community or Vietnamese'), profession ('the medical community') or orientation (the gay community').

As Raymond Williams has put it, 'Community can be the warmly persuasive word to describe an existing set of relationships of the warmly persuasive word to describe an alternative set of relationships.

What is most important, perhaps, is that unlike all other terms of social organization (state, nation, society, etc) it seems never to be used unfavourably and never to be given any positive opposing or distinguishing term'.

In the context of community cultural development, 'community' describes a dynamic process or characteristic. There is general recognition that to be more than an ideological assertion, the bonds of community must be consciously, perpetually renewed.

From the Arts Hunter Website:
Aspects of commonality that exist between people define a community. People that share common beliefs, have a common origin, share common experiences or merely live in a specific location can be defined as a community.

Community is that entity to which we belong, greater than kinship but more immediate than the abstraction we call society. It is the arena in which people acquire their most fundamental and substantial experience of social life outside the confines of 'home', it is where one learns and continues to practice how to be social and where one acquires culture.

Another point of view was put by Bong Ramilo at the Art and Community Conference in Melbourne two years ago. He said “a community is a group of individuals trying to work together without murdering each other.”

In the current issue of Artwork Magazine (show) he discusses how your very notion of community can enhance or impede your work. The most important thing to note form the article is that communities may exist without a name, without a clear front or public face and without a unifying or identifying feature and still be in a very real sense, communities.

Community Animation
From the French animation socio-culturelle, this is the common term for community cultural development in Francophone countries. There, community artists are known as animateurs. This term was used in much international discussion of such work in the 1070s.

Community Arts
is the common term for community cultural development in Britain and most other Anglophone countries; but in U.S. English, it is also sometimes used to describe conventional arts activity based in a municipality, such as 'the Arts Council, a community arts agency.' While in this document we use 'community artist' to describe individuals engaged in this work, to avoid such confusion, we have chosen not to employ the collective term 'community arts' to describe the whole enterprise.

Community Consultation
Consultation in a public art project might mean talking to the community about what they would like to see developed, and then an artist creates it from a brief. In CCD, consultation is a more active process, and it continues throughout the project rather than being a prelude to the development of the artwork.

Staying with the public art project, in a CCD process the community would be participating in the creation stage as well. In CCD consultation also extends to active direction, management and control of the project by the community.
Consultation in a public art project might mean talking to the community about what they would like to see developed, and then an artist creates it from a brief.

In CCD, consultation is a more active process, and it continues throughout the project rather than being a prelude to the development of the artwork. Staying with the public art project, in a CCD process the community would be participating in the creation stage as well.

In CCD consultation also extends to active direction, management and control of the project by the community.

Community Cultural Development (CCD)
The meaning of the very name of this sector is the most frequently sought definition by newcomers to the field. CCD is not an artform, but an arts practice. That means it is not about artwork so much as ways of doing any form of artwork. It may be useful to think of the phrase as a description rather than as a name.

CCD activities can incorporate a range of practices and methodologies, which are often developed specifically for each project. This includes using the latest new media or exploring the traditional cultural activities of people from any background.

Unlike other forms of enjoying the arts, CCD provides communities with the chance to express themselves, and to create and manage the projects in which they participate.

Activities tend to be identified as CCD if they feature at least some of the following aspects:

  • Community members and artists/artworkers working together with the community members being active participants in cultural activities, rather than passive audience members, and the artists/artworkers providing their expertise through facilitating the cultural activities which the community wants to undertake.
  • Community culture being expressed, explored, interpreted, presented or developed.
  • Community members gaining new skills and being exposed to new challenges.
  • Social and developmental changes taking place alongside artistic outcomes - i.e. something changes through the exposure of ideas, issues and community members to arts and cultural activities. Examples of these changes might be the addressing of community issues, the development of new skills, increased communication and networking, or self-representation of the community to themselves and to others.

CCD describes a range of initiatives undertaken by artist in a collaboration with other community members to express identity, concerns and aspirations through the arts and communications media, while building cultural capacity and contributing to social change.

Community Development
Technical Version: a process involving the conception, planning, and implementation of projects or activities which create improvements in (or reduce the extent of declines in) the living standards of people in a particular community.

Plain English Version: doing things that improve people's lives.

Community Groups
May be defined by ethnic and language ties or common interests such as; age, gender, sexuality, disability or geographic boundaries.

Community Ownership
Is this about copyright? Is it about custodianship of a finished artwork? How can a community ‘own' an intangible object? What does it mean for a community to have a sense of an artwork being their own creation?

Community Participation (and Control)
These are essentially tools through which you can achieve community empowerment and ownership. This involves engaging with your community beyond source of inspiration, material or consultation for an artistic brief, and for employing them for more than free labour on a project.

Community participation and control revolves around community members deciding what kind of project they want to do in the first place….about what kind of things they want to address and to achieve, what they want to change at the end of the project.

It is about community members participating in the artistic decision making processes, the administrative decision making processes and more.

Is there any aspect of a project which you cannot have community members participating in or even controlling?

Computer Mediated Communication (CMC)
Messages exchanged by networked computers.

Constructive contribution
To team work may include participating and contributing to discussions and decisions about allocation of work within the team; providing back up to colleagues on high volume or stress work; providing and receiving constructive feedback.

A person who is contracted to perform a specific and often specialised role for an organisation, as distinct from a practitioner employed full time by an organisation.

People who act as sources of information or data.

A deal that allows for the exchange of services, goods or publicity without money changing hands.

Controlled Media
Publications that are paid for and controlled in distribution by the originator eg leaflets and brochures.

Corporate Citizenship
The role of a company in considering its responsible involvement within the wider community.

Corporate Conscience
The part of an organisation which considers the most socially responsible actions to take.

Corporate Image
The way society views a company, or the position a company holds within the wider community.

Critical Awareness
Is the result of a shift in perspective that allows you to see the way that you operate: an awareness of your own awareness? A deep engagement like art making can facilitate the process by allowing confrontation with the unarticulated: a sense of self as the transactor of meaning.

Cultural Action
Comes very close to being a synonym for cultural development i.e.: action undertaken through the arts for education, development and social impact.

It is also employed by practitioners of critical pedagogy such as that proposed by Paulo Freire to describe educational interventions for development that make use of culture, such as preconceiving folktales to advance educational goals.

Cultural Democracy
Is the term for a philosophy or policy emphasizing pluralism, participation, and equity within and between cultures?

Although it has roots in anti-Ku Klux Klan writings of the 1920s, it did not come into common usage until introduced as a policy rubric in Europe in the 1960s.

Cultural diversity
The current term used to describe the many cultures that are part of Australian life. This term is replacing the term multiculturalism.

Cultural Equity
Describes the goal of a movement by artist and organizers, to ensure a fair share of resources for institutions focusing on non-European cultures. The goal of cultural-equity organizing is to redress and correct historic imbalances in favour of European-derived culture.

Cultural Policy
Describes the values and principles that guide any social entity in cultural affairs.

Cultural policies are most often made by governments, from school boards to legislatures and the executives of cultural agencies, but also by many other institutions in the private sector, from corporations to community organizations.

Cultural Work
With its roots in the pan progressive Popular Front cultural organizing of the '30s, emphasizes the socially conscious nature of the arts, stressing the role of the artist as cultural worker, countering the tendency to see art making as a frivolous occupation, a pastime as opposed to important labour.

Communities are complex and multi-layered, meaning that a particular community is made up of many 'cultures'. These may be apparent through arts and cultural activities, which are already happening and many more that, are less visible to people outside that community.

Community culture might also include expressions of identity such as language, dress, cuisine, sporting activities and more in addition to what is narrowly termed 'arts'.

These things are part of most communities in some form or another, and they are usually of great value to those communities, even if they are not prominent aspects of some communities' lives. In the context of CCD activities, wider definitions of 'culture' are often used to identify communities and bring them together, although project activities tend to be limited to art aspects of culture.

Cultural facilities and services
Include community arts programs and groups; Facilities include: theatres, music venues, galleries, cinemas, art workshops venues. Services include: Advocacy, skills development, access to data bases, mailing lists, egroups, auditing, financial management, administration, project management, volunteer support.

Cultural needs
May relate to more facilities and services; having a stronger cultural presence in the built environment; more opportunities for ‘appropriate' cultural activities.

Cultural practices
May relate to language, shared sense of history, religious and spiritual observances; protocol, eating and drinking habits; prohibitions and taboos; forms of artistic expression.


Decision makers
May include project officers and program managers in government departments; members of state and federal parliament and local government; state and federal government ministers; project officers, program managers and committees in other organisations.

Key attributes – such as gender, income level and age – that make up a group of people.

(With its many subsets such as 'economic development,' 'community development' and 'cultural development') describes a process of analysing the resources and needs of a particular community or social sector, then planning a implementing a program of interlocking initiatives to rectify deficiencies and build on strengths.

The community cultural development field stresses participatory, self-directed development strategies, where members of a community define their own aims and determine their own paths to reach them, rather than imposed development, which tends to view communities as problems to be solved by bring circumstances in line with predetermined norms.

Similarly, the ‘development' part of CCD can be turned into a verb. It is the doing part. What are we doing through ccd processes and activities? Possibility one: we are working with a community in the development of their culture. Possibility two - It is important to remember that ‘develop' doesn't necessarily mean change.

Many communities have highly sophisticated community cultures and/or very traditional cultures and change does not equal development.

Possibility two is that ccd is about a community using its culture as a tool with which to develop other aspects of their community. For example – economic development, addressing social issues, empowerment, identity, housing, reclaiming public space, and so on…you would know more about this area and come up with a much more comprehensive list than I could.

Direct Mail
Mail addressed to an individual person or household, usually incorporating a persuasive message.

Direct Marketing
Promotional material directed through mail or telephone to individual households or businesses.

Discrete Public
A distinct or separate group within the community.

A payment made to shareholders as a part profit made by a company.

Media or equipment that can be used to document projects may include; photos, videos, audio cassettes, CDs, written reports, illustrations.

Dominant Coalition
The senior collection of decision makers within an organisation.

Drip fed
The constant supply of news releases and other relevant material to the media.


E-Commerce / E-Business
Terms used to describe trading and conducting business on the internet.

E- Conferencing
The real-time connection of computers to allow a meeting to be held through a network of text or voice communication.

Economic and political power
May relate to (list not exhaustive) average level of income; ownership of land and businesses; number and type of decision making positions held; social and occupational status; level of education and training.

The most senior position at a newspaper, responsible for the final product that goes to print.

Education and learning
May refer to technical types of learning (i.e. gaining facts and figure etc.); interpretive learning (i.e. powers of analysis and understanding); emancipator learning (i.e. changes to behaviour attitudes and previous held views.

A method of sending electronic messages and files across a network or the internet.

A family of data link protocols that specifies how data is transferred over a network.

Evaluative Research
Research that is used to monitor or measure an existing or concluded campaign, program, product or event.

Evaluation techniques
Can be applied both during (formative) and on completion of the project (summative) and can include informal and formal discussion; interviews; written participant feed back; judgements of external observers; performance indicator measures.

External Communication
Communication outside the group or organisation.

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