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wavy dots Resources & Research

Glossary of Resources (P-T)


Introduction/context statement required


PACT (Partnership Affirming Community Transformation)
Is a program of the Rockefeller Foundation's Creativity & Culture Division to support community cultural development projects?

Participants in CCD projects are normally the community members. They can participate in the creation of artistic works as well as the management of them. Unlike the artworkers, participants are not paid for their contribution.

Participatory Research
Is the approach to social change-a process frequently used for people who are exploited and oppressed?

The approach challenges the way knowledge is produced with conventional social-science methods and disseminated by dominant education institutions. Instead of distinguishing the subjects of research from the researchers, it puts the gathering of knowledge into the hands of the people being studied.

Passive Public
A public which is not actively involved with an issue, event or message, also called a latent public.

Giving something or performing benevolent actions with no expectation of acknowledgement or reward.

Policies and procedures
For procedures production of advertising resources should include guidelines to specify the bodies which have endorsed the programs; avoid misleading vague or ambiguous advertising.

Political Rhetoric
The use of the spoken word to persuade within a political environment; sometimes associated with lack of consistency of actions.

Primary Research
Original research.

Probability Sample
A scientific sampling framework that relies on a representative selection from the population as a whole.

It is important to note that there is no single process for undertaking CCD activities.

A CCD process is one which includes appropriate community participation, direction and control. Each activity and each community is likely to require a unique process - one, which is adapted to specifically address the unique features, requirements and aspirations of the community.

A senior member of a broadcast team who arranges line ups and edits stories and/or complies and arranges radio programs and/or manages all aspects of a major performance or event.


  • A recurrent type of CCD activity such as a repeating set of annual events, or an ongoing activity, which does not have an easily identifiable end point when it commences;
  • Software installed on a computer that facilitates the performance of useful work, such as a word processing program.

Program Guidelines, Funding Guidelines, Application Guidelines
Technical Version: different names for documents that variously attempt to explain the purpose of a particular funding program, what is covered and not covered by it, how to complete the application and the process for assessment of applications (sometimes included in a Program or Funding Application Kit).

Plain English Version: things to tell you what the funding program is about and how to apply. (Considerable variation in helpfulness - may even increase confusion).

Is a one-off community activity, with an identifiable beginning and end?

A project plan will include clear indications of what the project will achieve, as well as what the community and artsworkers will do and how they will do it. It is not unusual for CCD projects to build upon one another, but remain distinct as separate projects.

Project Benefit Statement
Technical Version: a report detailing how the expenditure of funds granted has created benefits for businesses, individuals or the general public and how these benefits compare to those sought to be achieved under the original application forming the basis for the conferral of the grant.

Plain English Version: a report that tells the people who gave you the money about the good things resulting from spending it.

Project Goals
Technical Version: the objectives for which funding is sought in terms of the Project Outcomes and Project Benefits.
Plain English Version: the reason why you want the funding.

Project Milestones
Technical Version: intermediate goals or steps towards completion of the project e.g. if funding was being sought for a consultant to conduct a study, intermediate milestones might include: finalisation of study Terms of Reference, finalisation of the Selection Committee, placement of advertisements seeking Calls for Expressions of Interest in media.

Plain English Version: steps in the right direction, completing them means you are 'on track'.

The systematic dissemination of a doctrine, aimed to win people over to a certain idea.

A formal standard or instruction set.

A group of people who share common interests or concerns.

Puff Pieces
Stories which have little substance and are very promotional.


For the plan can be verbal or written.

Controls and laws which; limit media ownership for example.

Research methods
May be qualitative, quantitative, action orientated, participatory.

Research strategies
May include, but are not exclusive to; literature and data analysis, surveys, written and/or oral questionnaires, interviews (structured and/or semi-structured), observation, workshops, meetings, case studies.

Research usage
Research may be for used for gathering information, planning projects and/or strategies, CCD initiatives, planning policy.

Can be in the form of Financial (money); Physical (venues, materials, provisions equipment; Human (paid staff, skilled and unskilled worker and volunteers.


Keep a close watch on or monitoring the community for issues, events or trends which may effect an organisation.

Screen Saver
A blank screen or moving image that is automatically displayed after the computer has not been used for a predetermined period of time; originally designed to prevent damage to the computer screen.

Scripted Story
Final version of a broadcast story as read by the journalist or newsreader.

Secondary Research
Research undertaken by another.

Self - Representation
As a concept this seems clear – enabling your community or individuals in the community to determine how they are represented through the project, and hopefully determining how they are perceived through the project.

A specially configured computer running network software that provides access to network resources for client workstation computers.

An icon on the computer desktop that provides a direct link to a program, directory or file; shortcuts are identified by the small arrow located in the lower left hand corner of the image.

Social Capital
This term refers to a range of measures, which assist in defining or describing the health of the social fabric or community life in economic terms.

It is largely a term used to ascribe an inherent value to things such as building and developing community, social networks, facilities and community activities so that the worth of these things is not lost under an economic rationalist world view.

As a concept, social capital also encourages the idea that cooperation adds value to society in areas where competition cannot assist.

Socio – Culturalism
A theory that suggests society uses technology to serve its needs.

Programs that contain computer operation instructions; there are two types of software; applications and system.

Sound Bite
A short section of an audio tape used in radio broadcast.

Spin Doctoring
A term used to describe the ability to put a slant or spin on a story in order for it to appear in its most favourable light.

Refers to individuals, groups or organisations who have a specific interest or 'stake' in a particular need, issue situation or project and may include members of the local community (residents, businesses, workers, representatives such as councillors or politicians); community groups (services, interest groups, cultural groups clubs, associations, churches, mosques, temples); local, state and federal governments in parliamentary, representative, bureaucratic and officer levels; government departments, agencies and services (human services, public utilities, police); political parties; other CCD agencies (workers, management, networks); unions; employers and employer groups; peak bodies and networks in CCD; education and training providers; experts in the subject, issue situation or project.

Are developed and implemented to enable individuals and target groups in the community to express their ideas, views and need for CCD projects and activities and may include informal consultations, formal consultations using meetings forums or print and other media; networking.

Strategic Partnership
A partnership or agreement with another organisation for mutual benefit .

Straw Poll
An informal, non scientific survey to gauge public opinion about an issue.

To browse or navigate through the information on the internet and the World Wide Web (www).

Style Manual
A booklet that includes the particular style to be followed by an organisation in print publications, eg; spelling, typeface, formatting and logos.

The process within a print newsroom in which stories are polished, cut to size, given a headline and placed on a page.

This is a term often limited to the narrow field of funding - where will we get the money from next time….really, the idea is more about the next time - is the community culture sustainable without funding? Probably, in most cases, it is. Is the involvement of the artists sustainable without some form of cash income?

Sustainability in CCD includes notions of Development because if your community culture is about ‘preservation' rather than growth, change or development, then it is going to be difficult to sustain in its vital state – you almost have to make it a reverential idea, put it behind glass so to speak, which actually removes it from everyday life, which may defeat the purpose of having a community culture – it needs to be all about everyday life.

It doesn't mean that tradition has no place in community culture, in fact quite the opposite, as a tradition only has meaning if it is relevant and engaged with through your community culture.


The person/people interviewed for a television interview or used in a photograph.

Talking Head
A person seen from waist or chest up talking to the camera.

Target Group
A group of people who are the focus for a specific purpose, usually to receive information or assistance.

Technological Convergence
A trend within the media by which technology has allowed mediums to come together eg; newspapers or radio on the internet.

Technological Determination
A theory which suggests technology is responsible for changing society.

A meeting, held in different geographic locations, linking members by text, audio or video technology; originally referred to as a phone linkup.

Terms of Reference
Technical Version: a document specifying the scope and details of the activity to which it refers and any conditions relating to the appointment of a person(s) to undertake the activity (usually used in relation to the supply of professional services).

For example, a study Terms of Reference should include: background to the study (what it involves, why it is needed); what exactly is to be studied (may also specify how it is to be done - e.g. surveys, workshops, literature review); may specify the price for the study and conditions such as inclusion or exclusion of additional expenses by the selected consultant.

Plain English Version: a document telling a consultant what to do, by when, how, and how much you will pay them for doing it.

Tender Specification
Technical Version: a document specifying the scope and details of the activity to which it refers and any conditions relating to the appointment of a person(s) to undertake the activity, usually used in relation to the supply of goods and non-professional services.

For example, a building tender specification should include details about the project (plans and drawings); what exactly is to be built (including materials specifications); may specify the price for the construction and conditions such as inclusion or exclusion of additional expenses by the selected firm.

Plain English Version: a document telling a supplier or builder what to do, by when, how, and how much you will pay them for doing it.

Thirty Second Grab
A 30 second section of a television interview, used for a news story, which covers key responses to interview questions.

Refers to activities or systems that transcend national boarders; the word embodies recognition of dynamic cultural processes that connect human societies regardless of official boundaries. In contrast to international, it also implies multidirectional rather than one.

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